Pilzzucht auf Kaffeesatz als Geschenkidee - Pilze selber züchten !
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Mit dem Start von Chido`s mushrooms haben wir das Ziel definiert, möglichst viele Menschen für die Produktion von Pilzen auf organischen Reststoffen zu begeistern.
Damit jeder damit im Selbstversuch starten kann, haben wir hier alsOpen Source Quelle die Zusammenfassung von unserem Startworkshop aus 2010 veröffentlicht.

Open Source Anleitung zur Pilzzucht auf Kaffeesatz:

Was wir im Alltag schnell in die Mülltonne werfen, ist in Wahrheit wertvoller Nährboden für Pflanzen. Pilze wachsen eigentlich auf allen organischen Abfällen, Edelpilze wachsen besonders gut auf Kaffeesatz.

  1. Der Kaffeesatz sollte direkt nach dem Gebrauch verwendet werden, da er dann noch am „reinsten“ ist. Außerdem sollte der Kaffeesatz nicht zu nass sein. Kleiner Test: Wenn man den Kaffeesatz in der Hand hält, sollte nichts zwischen den Fingern hindurch rieseln. Jetzt mischt man die gekaufte Pilzbrut (Pilzsamen) mit dem Kaffeesatz und ggf. mit den Kaffeespelzen ungefähr im Verhältnis 1 zu 20.
  2. Anschließend füllt man einen durchsichtigen kleinen stabilen Plastiksack mit dem edlen Gemisch und bindet den Sack mit einem lockeren Knoten zu, so dass genügend Luft an den Kaffeesatz kommt. Alternativ kann man auch kleine Löcher in den Plastiksack stechen. Jetzt stellt man den Sack in einer sauberen Umgebung im Keller auf. In dieser sogenannten Inkubationsphase brauchen die Pilze es dunkel und feucht. Außerdem sind eine gute Luftzirkulation und Zimmertemperatur wichtig, man stelle sich das Klima unter der Erde vor. Der Prozess ist abgeschlossen, wenn der Kaffeesatz durch das Austreiben der Pilzsamen ganz weiß geworden ist. Bei Austernpilzen dauert diese Phase ca. 2-4 Wochen, bei Shitakepilzen 6-12 Wochen.
  3. Als nächstes brauchen die Pilze ein feuchteres Klima um zu fruchten, hierfür eignet sich besonders ein feuchter Kellerraum oder das Badezimmer. Achtung: unbedingt direkte Lichteinstrahlung vermeiden. Um die Fruchtphase einzuleiten, sollte man den Sack öffnen und bewässern. Sobald die Pilze empor sprießen, müssen sie täglich bewässert werden. Beim Ernten sollte der ganze Pilz herausgenommen werden. Den übrig gebliebenen Kaffeesatz kann man gut auf einen Kompost geben, denn die Pilze entziehen dem Kaffeesatz Koffein und so eignet sich der Boden auch für andere Pflanzen.

Zutaten:

  • Einen Keller
  • Pilzsamen z.B. im Internet bestellbar. Wir verkaufen aber als professioneller Produzent keine Pilzbrut für den Heimgebrauch. Bitte wenden Sie sich für diese Bestellungen an unseren Kooperationspartner http://www.shii-take.de.
  • Kaffeesatz und optional auch Kaffeespelzen (Bohnenhüllen)
  • Durchsichtige Plastiksäcke
  • Wasser
  • Saubere Umgebung

Dauer:

Die etwas aufwendige Einrichtung der eigenen kleinen Pilzzucht dauert ungefähr 2 -3 Stunden, sonst reicht ein täglicher Kontrollgang von ca. 5 Minuten.

Besonders geeignet für:

Fortgeschrittene mit besonderer Passion

Kleiner Tipp:

Wenn in der Inkubationsphase der Kaffeesatz grün oder orange wird, dann ist er nicht mehr zu gebrauchen und man sollte ihn in die Bio-Mülltonne schmeißen. Während der Fruchtphase deuten braune Flecken auf den Pilzen darauf hin, dass die Pilze entweder zu viel Luft oder zu viel Licht ausgesetzt sind. Die Pilzzucht ist ein Fach für sich und man sollte unbedingt etwas Fachliteratur im Internet lesen, bevor man die eigenen Pilze züchtet und dann verzehrt.

Wer nicht lesen will die Open Source Anleitung zur Pilzzucht auf Kaffeesatz im Video:

 

Growing Gourmet Mushrooms at Home from Waste Coffee – Chido’s open source description

The basic idea is to turn waste into food – since even the poor have organic waste in abundance as open source. Growing mushrooms has the potential for the poor, especially female orphans, to escape their situation of abuse, find meaning and build self-esteem.

1. What is a mushroom?

A mushroom is the fruiting body of the mycelium. Different mushrooms grow in different environments 2. Why mushrooms? Because they are very healthy (high in protein, contain vitamins and minerals), many are good for medical use (i.e. for treating TB), they are good for your immune system (in case of HIV, cancer) and contain antioxidants. Mushrooms are also good for the environment: they break down plant and animal debris in the creation of soil, recycling carbon, nitrogen and even diesel oil. Cultivated mushrooms and types of mushrooms Advantages: cultivation allows you to choose when you want them
  • Mushrooms grow on almost everything that is agricultural waste, cellulose is needed for the cultivation but they also grow on cow dung
  • The choice of mushroom depends which need you need you are serving
  • Oyster is the easiest and fastest to grow (only 3-4 weeks before first harvest)
  • Shitake: grows on hard woods, but also on coffee and other material (6 to 12 weeks before harvest)

3. Producing Seeds

In most settings, buying seeds from a professional producer is the fastest method. But if seed production is wanted or necessary, there are two different techniques: 1) Spore culture 2) Tissue culture Both require an absolutely sterile environment (usually a laboratory)! Spore culture: collecting the “dust” Look for mature (3-5 days old) mushrooms that have begun opening at the top. Cut off the top and set it on a piece of paper. The spores then fall onto the paper (called a“print”) and canbe collected. Tissue culture These seeds are made from a young (2-3 days), fresh mushroom with the stem being the best part. In order to get the speciment, open the stem in the middle and cut a small piece from there. It has to be from the inner part of the mushroom because the outer part was exposed to the environment and thus contamination. Each piece (or a few of the collected spores) is then placed in a petridish with PDA (potatoe dextrose agar). Within 3-4 days the mycelium should begin growing: after approximately 2 weeks, the entire petridish should be white. This is called the “mother culture”. At this point, the mother culture can be dried or put in the fridge for later use. In the next step, grain is introduced. The grain (wheat, barley, sorghum, spelt, rice or millet) is watered over night and then decontaminated in an autoclave. This is filled into sterilized 1 liter bottles with a little piece of the mother culture (ca. 20 per petridish). The bottles are not closed entirely because oxygen is vital in the process. This subculture one is finished when the mycelium has colonized the grain and the entire bottle is white. This subculture can again be multiplied at one spoon per bottle (subculture 2), and once more to receive subculture 3. Do not create more than subculture 3 if you intend to sell the seeds, because they this would mean a loss of quality for the seeds; anything beyond subculture 3 can only be used for fruitification. When producing seeds for yourself (not for selling), a simpler method is possible: Put any kind of organic material (cardboard, cotton shirt, coffee waste…) in a small (1 liter) bag (either paper or plastic). Add bits of mushroom tissue throughout and then close the bag. The seeds that you will get will not be entirely sterile, but stronger than the ones created under sterile conditions!

4. Conditions in the Mushroom House

Conditions for cultivation of mushrooms are simple:
  • No direct sunlight
  • No blowing wind but fresh air circulation; a place where you would feelcomfortable yourself
  • Dark; very dark during the incubation; in the fruitification phase there should be a bit more light so that you can read a newspaper
  • Humidity Needed: 3 rooms (should have concrete floor and be very clean) incubation room: 18-28° C (10-31° possible, but no t ideal) fruitification/ growing room 10-27° C working room (where the substrate is prepared and the bags are packed)
When buying the seeds: ask the providers at what temperature the seeds were made and what temperature they would recommend for incubation and fruitification.

5. Substrate preparation

Mushrooms are a mould; they have to be introduced immediately to the substrate. The size of the substrate is decisive: the smaller the better, all pieces should be 4cm and below; thus coffee grounds are very suitable. The smaller the substrate, the fewer empty spaces/air. With too many empty spaces, the mushrooms cannot grow properly in the bag, it is also easier to absorb more water when there are less spaces. The quality of the substrate is very important. In order to remove contamination from the substrate, there are 2 techniques: 1) boiling (less preferred or 2) soaking in water overnight and steaming the next day Steaming and boiling also makes the “food” for the seeds in the substrate more accessible (breaks open the molecules).Coffee grounds as a substrate are already clean as boiling water passed through in the coffee shop. Only import is to check the humidity – ideal are approx. 50-60%. Test: if you squeeze the coffee in your hand, no drops should come out. Use the coffee grounds straight away! You can also keep it in a cool place for up to 2 days, otherwise it might be contaminated (then it has to be steamed to clean it). For steaming, put some bricks in a large pot or oil drum, add a few centimeters of water and then put a bag or large linen on top. Add the substrate and then boil the water for about 2 hours (lid closed at all times). Wait for the substrate to cool before inoculation! If only a little dirt is to be washed out of the substrate, cold water can be used as well (not as effective).

6. Inoculation

Substrate and seed are mixed into small bags (best is thin, transparent plastic) at approximately one quantity of seed to 20 quantities of substrate. Both layering as well as mixing through and through are possible. The bags should be filled in portions, pressed down to squeeze out any air, until they are very full. Ideally, substrate makes up the top layer to protect the seed from contamination. Knotting the top of the bag should leave a little hole are the top for air to circulate. Experts can prepare around 100 bags per day.

7. Incubation

Incubation is when the mycelium is colonising the substrate; this process is complete when the whole bag is white. For oyster mushrooms, this takes about 3-4 weeks, shiitake may take 6-12 weeks to colonize the substrate. During this time, the bags are left to sit in the room. Check every day for signs of contamination (e.g. green or orange moulds) – separate contaminated bags from the healthy ones and keep them under observation. Causes of contamination:
  • seed (low quality)
  • conditions of the incubation room
  • method of preparing the substrate
If you see a need for adding extra nutrients: mix brown sugar with flour and inject it into the bag. Once the mushrooms begin growing, you have to water every day. Thus, if planning to leave for a weekend, possibly open the bag and add some new substrate in the center, giving the mycelium “more to do”. Alternatively, if you need to slow down the growing process, wait until the incubation stage is finished, then put the bags into a fridge (5-7 degrees). Once the mycelium has grown throughout the substrate and the bag is all white, fruitification will start.

8. Fruitification

Once the bags have grown entirely white, fruitification begins. Mycelium needs to be “shocked” to begin producing mushrooms. In the case of oysters, normal watering is usually enough. Shiitake have to be soaked in water for several hours to begin this phase. Both causes a change in temperature, boosting growth (imagine a forest after it rained and the sun comes out again: they grow a lot then). The bags are carried into the growing room, the top is opened and water is sprayed on with a hose. (Never add any water during the incubation.) From now on, water the bags every day! If the bags are too dry, put them into water for a few hours and they will take as much water as they need! The top part of the bag should never go dry. A few days later mushrooms start popping out. Sometimes this happens naturally, without human intervention – in this case, one needs to begin watering immediately because otherwise the bag will dehydrate. Important: No direct sunlight! If the mushrooms develop brown spots, this is a sign of either too much wind or too much light.

9. Harvest

The best time for harvesting is in the morning. Water the bags AFTER the harvest, as the mushrooms would soak up too mush water, losing quality. Keep the floor clean at any time! Make sure that after watering, all surplus water is swept away to avoid slimy moulds from growing all over the floor. When harvesting, take EVERYTHING of the mushroom out. In other words, do not cut the mushroom stem, leaving a piece behind (it will begin fouling after a few days) – but also do not take out chunks of substrate (creating holes that will fill with water and then also begin fouling). When harvesting, always start with the good bags and then do the bad bags. Mushrooms keep for 1-2 weeks in the fridge. If you have excess production and want to dry the mushrooms, do it in the shade. No additional heat is needed, just free air circulation.

10. Links and literature

Our seeds were bought via the internet on www.shii-take.de Chido recommends the author Paul Stamets (e.g. Growing Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms; Mushroom Cultivator: A Practical Guide to Growing Mushrooms at Home; Mycelium Running) – available on Amazon.




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